In every day of life and every sector, permanent magnets (likes Neodymium Magnet / Samarium Cobalt Magnets) or electromagnets are being used and it is important to be able to distinguish between the two magnets.




There are various types of magnetic products, ranging from those we use at home, for offices to sizable industrial magnets that can easily lift and move whole automobiles or other hefty objects made of metal just through their magnetic intensities. Thus, magnetic functions are different in each scenario.


In lieu of this, the article will focus on both the permanent magnets and electromagnets


Generally, a magnet is a material or metallic object that produces a magnetic field; it produces a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials such as Iron and attracts or repels others. All crystals in the core of magnetic materials depend on producing a North pole and a South pole.


Different or opposite poles attract one another while like or same poles repel. That is, North and South pole attract, while North and North or South and South repel. Magnetic products are found and useful in various places such as residences, offices, industries and even in imaginative crafting. The importance of magnets cannot be over emphasized.


Magnetic Intensities


The magnetic fields (called B or B-fields) are produced  by the moving electric currents or charges. These flows are invisible streams to ordinary eyes in which charged fragments circulation.

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electric charges in relative motion and magnetized materials. Magnetic fields are observed in a wide range of size scales, from subatomic particles to galaxies. In everyday life, the effects of magnetic fields are often seen in permanent magnets, which pull on magnetic materials (such as iron) and attract or repel other magnets. Magnetic fields surround and are created by magnetized material and by moving electric charges (electric currents) such as those used in electromagnets. Magnetic fields exert forces on nearby moving electrical charges and torques on nearby magnets. In addition, a magnetic field that varies with location exerts a force on magnetic materials. Both the strength and direction of a magnetic field vary with location. As such, it is an example of a vector field.

A charged particle moving with constant speed produces an electric field as well as a magnetic field. This means, when a charged particle moves with constant speed without acceleration, it generates an electric current and magnetic field.


Permanent Magnet.


A permanent magnet is obtain from carbon-rich materials and attracts ferromagnetic materials, ferrimagnets or ferrites. Ferromagnets are objects made from materials that are magnetized and create their own persistent magnetic field. They are materials attracted to a magnet and these include the elements iron, nickel, cobalt, some alloys of rare-earth metals and some naturally occurring minerals such as lodestone.

Permanent magnets are utilized day to day in various areas as stated earlier, example of this is loudspeakers, electric bells, refrigerator magnet used to hold notes on the refrigerator door, relays amongst others.

In the case of permanent magnets this field remains over time without weakening


How Permanent Magnets allured


Heating the object higher than its Curie temperature, allowing it to cool in a magnetic field and hammering it as it cools. This is the most effective method and is similar to the industrial processes used to create permanent magnets.

Placing the item in an external magnetic field will result in the item retaining some of the magnetism on removal. Vibration has been shown to increase the effect. Ferrous materials aligned with the Earth’s magnetic field that are subject to vibration (e.g., frame of a conveyor) have been shown to acquire significant residual magnetism. Likewise, striking a steel nail held by fingers in a N-S direction with a hammer will temporarily magnetize the nail.


Stroking: An existing magnet is moved from one end of the item to the other repeatedly in the same direction (single touch method) or two magnets are moved outwards from the center of a third (double touch method)

The permanent magnets can continue to be totally magnetic without external force such as heat energy, other tough magnetic fields or strong forces. If it is subjected to these effects it can be fully demagnetized.


What are electromagnets


An electromagnet is a soft metal coil made into a magnet by the passage of electric current through the coil surrounding it. The more the amount of current that flows with the coil the stronger the magnetic force of the electromagnet. In other words, an electromagnet is made from a coil of wire that acts as a magnet when an electric current passes through it but stops being a magnet when the current stops. Often, the coil is wrapped around a core of “soft” ferromagnetic material such as mild steel, which greatly enhances the magnetic field produced by the coil. The coil in electromagnet is referred to as solenoid.


If the coil of wire is wrapped around a material with no special magnetic properties (e.g., cardboard), it will tend to generate a very weak field. However, if it is wrapped around a soft ferromagnetic material, such as an iron nail, then the net field produced can result in a several hundred- to thousand fold increase of field strength.


Electromagnets are used in all kinds of electric devices, including hard disk drives, speakers, motors, and generators, as well as in scrap yards to pick up heavy scrap metal. They’re even used in MRI machines, which utilize magnets to take photos of human inner parts.


Electromagnets can be switched on and off and It can do this because it is an electromagnet. When current flows through a wire, a magnetic field is produced around the wire and an electromagnet is formed. The magnetic field can be turned off again by switching off the current. Around every magnet there is an invisible magnetic field. Magnetic field. Further, unlike permanent magnet, the strength of an electromagnet can easily be changed by changing the amount of electric current that flows through it. The poles of an electromagnet can even be reversed by reversing the flow of electricity. An electromagnet works because an electric current produces a magnetic field.

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