The permanent magnet is the most important invention in the history of magnetism. A permanent magnet is a material that can provide magnetic flux when magnetized with an applied magnetic field.
What is Magnetism?
Magnetism, the study of magnetic materials, has flourished in the 19th century and new magnetic materials have been continuously discovered. As important functional materials, permanent magnets have been widely used in various fields. The modern power industry, industrial automation, information industry and other industries would not exist without the presence of permanent magnets. Therefore it can be said that without magnetic materials, there would be no modern power industry, industrial automation and information industry. Permanent magnet materials are widely used in a variety of applications such as motors and generators. Soft magnetic materials are also important for many modern devices such as telecommunication systems. Magnetic recording materials are necessary for the development of data storage technology such as hard disks and floppy disks; they are an integral part of computer technology. Magnetic refrigeration materials are widely used in refrigeration equipment; they have greatly improved human living standards by reducing food spoilage time and enabling more people to live in more comfortable environments. Spintronic materials have potential applications in quantum computing and other high-tech areas; they have great potential for future electronic devices.
What is the permanent magnet?
Permanent magnets, their materials generate a magnetic field from the internal structure. The magnetic fields from all of its atoms, or in some cases from their nuclei and electrons, are aligned, producing a strong magnetic field. Some materials called ferromagnets to retain this alignment even outside of a magnetic field; in these materials, the alignment is due to the orbits and spins of electrons within the atoms. This is why magnets cling to refrigerator doors.
Classification of Permanent Magnet Materials
Samarium Cobalt Magnet
Permanent magnets have various shapes